M.A. Hashemipour1, M. Poyayi2, A. Roshani2

  1. Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran..
  2. Kerman Social Determinants on Oral Health Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.


Introduction and Aims: Today, smoking is recognized as the biggest cause of preventable premature death. dentists can play a very important role in motivating and providing smoking cessation counseling and play this role of line requires gaining sufficient knowledge and education during the student period. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitude of dental students in Kerman in the field of smoking cessation counseling.

Methods and materials: This study was descriptive-analytical and cross sectional. The study population was fourth, fifth and sixth year dental students. A questionnaire was used to assess participants knowledge and attitude towards smoking cessation, using the 5 As of smoking cessation. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 21, t-test and chi-square software.

Results: This study showed that the mean score of students’ knowledge was 2.13 ± 14.12. There was a significant relationship between knowledge score, gender (women more than men) and the presence of a smoker in the family (P= 0.01, 0.001, respectively). Also, the mean attitude score was 36.25 41 5.41. There was a significant relationship between attitude score, gender (women more than men) and the presence of a smoker in the family (P = 0.01, respectively).

Conclusion:Results of this study showed that the students have good knowledge of the 5As (Ask, Advice, Assess, Assist, Arrange) but that they did not have much information about some parameters under Assess. Also, they have a positive attitude in this regard. Moreover, students believed that time limitations in dental visits and concerns on the effectiveness of smoking cessation consultations are the major obstacle in implementing a smoking cessation plan.

Keyword: Smoking cessation counseling, Dentistry, Knowledge


Prof. M.A. Hashemipour
Professor of Oral Medicine,
Neuroscience Research Center,
Institute of Neuropharmacology,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences,
Kerman, Iran.
Submission Date: 6th Sept., 2022
Date of Acceptance: 30th Oct., 2023
Publication Date: 1st Nov., 2023


Tobacco dependence is a chronic disease known as one of the major risk factors of more than 40 diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disease, diabetes, and even death.1-5

From 1950 to 2000, nearly 70 million people have died due to tobacco use. In the next 50 years, 450 million deaths may die due to smoking-related diseases. Smoking will be the major cause of mortality in 2030.6,7,8.

Smoking is a primary risk factor of oral cancer, leukoplakia, periodontitis, and delayed wound healing. Moreover, smoking shows several adverse effects on oral and dental health. The role of smoking is confirmed in several diseases such as pigmentation of the tooth and dental fillings, halitosis, anosmia, salivary changes, dental crown and root decay, soft tissue alterations, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, increased risk of bone resorption, tooth loss, pharyngeal cancer, and congenital diseases such as cleft lip and cleft palate. Dental implant failure, wound healing disorder, increased gingival resorption, and failure of periodontal treatments are among the negative impacts of smoking on dentistry treatments.9

Present estimations suggest that a total of 10 million smokers are there in Iran, and a total of 70000 smoking-related deaths occur annually in Iran, which will reach 200000 deaths with the present rate in 2025.10,11

Dentists and dental team visit patients regularly and can detect the primary effects and complications of tobacco use in the oral cavity as well as the general health status; they may also play a significant role in motivating patients for smoking cessation as well as the primary prevention of smoking and may provide better consultations in this regard compared with other medical professionals.11-13

Dentists’ knowledge and awareness regarding preventive treatments such as smoking cessation plans may play an undesirable role in changing patients’ attitudes and motivating patients. Available data shows that 5 to 10 percent of smoking cessation clinics are referred from dental clinics.14 Considering the vast complications of smoking and the statistics, all health care professionals should participate in overcoming this issue.14-17

All health care workers, especially dentists, should participate in controlling smoking due to several legal, ethical, scientific, and practical reasons.18-20

Hence, the role of dentists in controlling smoking is being considered in many countries, and they are educated in this area18-21, thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness and attitude of dental students of Kerman regarding smoking cessation consultation.