Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute-Metta, Lagos.
Introduction: There are conflicting evidences that music can improve psychoemotional stability and haemodynamic changes during surgeries, as well as improve doctor-patient relationship and the overall clinical outcome. This method is cheaper, devoid of side effects of drugs and provides a memorable experience to patient.
Aim: This study sets out to investigate the effect of adjunct music therapy on haemodynamic changes in patients undergoing transalveolar mandibular third molar surgery in a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of 146 participants between 21 and 55 years were randomized by balloting into music and non-music groups with equitable gender distribution. For participants in the music group, third molar surgery was performed with selected music tracks played via both external speaker and later headphone while the control group had the stages progress without musical intervention. The blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate were recorded at predetermined interval. Normality of data distribution was tested using Shapiro-Wilk test. Student t-test was used to compare mean for quantitative variables between the groups. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions and to investigate association between categorical variables (p<0.05).
Result and Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate between participants in this study. This suggests that music therapy confers no significant advantage in stabilizing the blood pressure, respiratory and pulse rates of patient during mandibular third molar surgery.
Dr. I.O Olaopa
Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,
Federal Medical Centre,
Date of Acceptance: 30th April, 2023
Publication Date: June 2023
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience which is associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. This suggests that sometimes, there is no direct relationship between pain and identifiable injury or pathology.1,2 The biomedical model of pain argues that pain is primarily a sensory neurological experience and pain level correlates predictably with degree of tissue damage. This model has been faulted as there is little evidence to support such systematic relationship especially in patients with chronic pain. Psychological constructs suggest that pain arises out of repression of emotional conflict through conversion where psychic energies are converted into physical symptoms.1,3
Patients consider dental treatments to be painful and scary.4,5 Third molar surgery is considered even more intensely frightening.6–8 It is an excellent example of a stressful medical or dental reproducible pain model.9 Fear enhances pain, and both can cause significant haemodynamic imbalance. The anxiety and fear that arise may cause systemic complications and in rare situations, life-threatening complications such as acute heart failure and cerebrovascular accident can occur.5
To improve clinical outcomes and ameliorate patient’s experience, different methods have been used to reduce anxiety, pain and adverse haemodynamic changes during surgeries, including third molar extraction. These methods are broadly categorized as pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic. 10 The pharmacologic methods carry with it, the risk of systemic complications such as respiratory depression, hypothermia, hypotension and loss of consciousness.5 To avoid these risks, non-pharmacologic approach provides an effective alternative.
The literature provides conflicting evidences that music can improve psycho-emotional stability and haemodynamic changes during surgeries, as well as improve doctor-patient relationship and the overall clinical outcome.8,11 This method is cheaper, devoid of side effects of drugs and provides a memorable experience to patient.6,12–14
This study sets out to investigate the effect of adjunct music therapy on haemodynamic changes in patients undergoing transalveolar mandibular third molar surgery in a tertiary hospital in southwest Nigeria. The study objective will compare changes in blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rates between participants who received music therapy during third molar surgery and the control group.