S. Bello, T.E. Oni, M.M. Salawu
Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Background: Dissatisfactions found in various jobs have been identified as workplace stressors that can directly influence an employee’s psychological and physical health. This study assessed job satisfaction and its relationship with the psychological health of health workers at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH).
Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted among 440 health workers in LASUTH. Participants were selected using the stratified sampling technique with the probability proportionate to size method. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections: sociodemographic characteristics and work history, the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and the General Health Questionnaire short version 12 (GHQ-12). Apart from the multidimensional JSS, the overall job satisfaction was also assessed using the single-item measure. Data was analysed with SPSS version 25.0. The level of statistical significance was d” 0.5.
Results: The mean age of respondents was 43.1 ± 9.2 years. Only 95 (21.6%) respondents expressed satisfaction on the single-item measure. Based on the JSS, the mean job satisfaction score was 126 ± 11.1 and mean GHQ score was 2.88 ± 2.43. There was a consistent weak negative correlation between job satisfaction scores and GHQ scores (p < 0.001). Furthermore, respondents who were satisfied with their job were less likely to have psychological morbidity (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Job satisfaction among respondents was low. This was associated with a high level of psychological morbidity. There is need for further investigations on the contemporary causes of job dissatisfaction.
Keywords: Job satisfaction; Psychological health; Surveys and questionnaires; Workplace; Correlation; Physician
Dr. S. Bello
Dept. of Epid. and Medical Statistics,
Faculty of Public Health,
College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan
Job satisfaction is connected to several sets of variables associated with individual characteristics, expectations regarding workplaces and organizations, as well as relationships with other professionals.1, 2 Spector defined it as the extent to which people like or dislike their job.3 It is a measure of workers’ contentedness with their job or individual aspects of their job such as satisfaction with pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefit, contingent rewards, operating procedures, coworkers, nature of work or communication among coworkers..3 It has to do with the positive emotional feelings that an individual has towards his or her job.4,5
An individual experiences job dissatisfaction when the expectations of the existing job and their ideal preferences are not met.6 Earlier studies have revealed lack of job satisfaction to be one of the primary predictors why people quit their jobs.7, 8 Recent studies show deterioration in the levels of job satisfaction among health workers in southern Nigeria when compared with earlier studies. Job satisfaction was mostly above average ranging from 40-84% in studies conducted over one decade ago among doctors and nursing in Benin,9-11 among doctors in Calabar,12 and Ibadan.13 However, recent study involving resident doctors in four southern teaching hospitals in southern Nigeria demonstrated a massive deterioration to about 20%.14,15 A similar recent study conducted among health professionals in a federal tertiary hospital in Enugu showed that less than a quarter were satisfied with each of financial remuneration, infrastructure/tools, welfare packages and training/sponsorships.16
Dissatisfactions found in various jobs have been extensively known to be a workplace stressors that can directly influence an employee’s psychological and physical health status.6 Psychological health is based on a person’s ability to interact with others and their environment. It signifies an individual’s sense of wellbeing and competence, and their ability to realize their full potential.17 Psychological morbidity refers to the diagnosable disorders or incidences in which mental health deteriorates to the point where it hampers the ability to function socially and productively.17 And the individual often experiences insomnia with features of depression and anxiety.18
Organizations are known to have a culture which is often referred to as; attitudes, norms and expectation, and they are found to have significant association with job satisfaction.19 Health facility center is a complex environment where personal, interpersonal and organizational factors have interplay with stress and burnout based on the level of satisfaction derived from the job.10, 20, 21 This results in health professionals exhibiting negative attitudes toward their clients, less productive, with possibility of quitting the job prematurely which in turn affects both service continuity and client recovery.22
In developing countries, the health sector has inadequate doctor-patient ratio which has a negative impact on health service delivery as this creates a large burden of work on the small number of available work force and affect their health and well-being. Patients are also affected as this increase their waiting time, cost and quality of care.23 Other health cadres are also affected in this regard. Shortage of human resource in the health sector is a big challenge in many countries in Africa. Nigeria is also grossly affected as her skilled health professionals migrate in large numbers to developed countries mostly due to low level of job satisfaction owing to poor working conditions, low and irregular wages among others.23-25
Over many decades, studies have been ongoing to find out the relationship between job satisfaction, workplace stress and its effects on both physical and psychological health.26 Many studies have found close links between mental health and job satisfaction. Psychological health disorder outcome in a study conducted among doctors in Calabar showed that about a fifth of the respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs and had increased likelihood of psychological disorder. 12, 27 As the level to deteriorate, it is prudent to suspect that this might impact on the psychological health of health workers. This study was therefore, conducted to assess the level of job satisfaction among health workers in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), their level of psychological health and the correlation between job satisfaction and psychological health.